Shape of the Universe and its Evolution
Which shape does the universe possess?A wood
Suppose you are in the center of a wood. It does not the matter at which direction
you look horizontally, you only see trees and bushes, near or farther away.
As a a curious person you wonder: "which shape does the wood possess?"
It is totally impossible to answer it from your position in the forest.
You may start an investigation.
- One of the options is to walk to the border of the wood and to go along it.
Moving around the forest and recording your movements carefully,
probably you can get a good impression of the shape and sizes of the wood.
- If you have access to a plane that can fly highly enough,
you have a good chance to see the shape of the forest.
Remember that you see in perspective, so distorted.
You see the forest as the crow flies, a kind of projection.
- If you look at a current map of the area, your response is immediately noticeable.
However, the projection of a part of a sphere on a flat surface leads
to distortion always. The map was created with one of the foregoing techniques.
An islander who cannot see the sea, and who wants to know what shape his island may proceed
in the same way as the investigator of the forest. In both cases the researcher has to go
outside the object of which he wants to define the shape.
The shape the earth has
Always navigators saw ships disappear behind the horizon and the horizon is always around.
This suggested already the convex shape of the earth to many people.
The idea of the sphericity of the earth is very old. Erathostenes from Greece 23 centuries ago,
was, as far as known, one of the first people who was able to determine the circumference of
the globe with an accuracy astonishingly well according to the limited possibilities of precise
measurements two thousand years ago: accurate to within one per cent.
During a partial eclipse the shadow of the earth strikes the moon:
the edge of such a shadow is always a part of a circle.
That can only be understood if the earth is spherical.
During the time of Napoleon the length of the equator was measured.
By definition is became exactly 40,000 km.
This way the length of the meter was defined. (In the meantime this definition is antique.)
It seems to be a misconception that people in general would have thought in the Middle
Ages, that the earth was flat. The famous explorers for example did not believe it!
Since we make space flights and we can observe the earth from very high, we know
for almost a hundred percent sure that the shape is a slightly flattened sphere,
a so-called ellipsoid. This beautiful shape contains some irregularities
among others due to mountain and valley landscapes and tidal waves.
Which shape does the earth possess?
The sun, the planets (as the earth) and all the satellites revolving around them
(including our moon), they all are practically spherical.
(Otherwise the asteroids are not spherical, but irregularly shaped as shrapnel
but a few sizes bigger. Probably the result of an explosion of a solid planet.)
The universe contains a lot of globular clusters, spherical collections of stars.
The stars in such a cluster have been distributed spherical symmetrically around the center.
The billions of galaxies can be regarded as extremely flattened spheres.
The question: "what shape the universe has?" is easily made but difficult to answer.
The reason is, that we cannot come outside the universe, by definition,
and therefore from "there" cannot be observed.
Everything said about the shape of the universe, is purely speculative.
However the shape of the universe is probably spherical.
This is not a prove, but only an acceptable supposition as used in this section, above.
Een voorbeeld van een spiraalnevel
The Evolution of the UniverseThe universe expands and contracts periodically.
The description may start at any time, because the universe repeats itself permanently.
The author chooses to start from the present.
The universe period shows the following phases.
The universe expands
During billions of years the universe expands decelerated relative to the universe centre.
The decrease of the expansion speed of each particle is due to gravity.
The kinetic energy of the expansion, the expansion energy, decreases and transfers
into gravity energy.
We people live in this phase.
The expanding universe conquers a part of the 'total nothingness'.
The empty spherical void in the center of the universe is explained later.
(It is not a black hole !!!)The radius of the universe sphere shell is maximalAccelerated expansion?
Probably Perlmutter and his team have been misguided by the universe itself:
these astronomers got the impression that the universe expands accelerated recently.
This absurd conclusion lead to the theory of dark energy. Nobody knows what it is.
It cannot be understood, because 'dark energy' are only empty words.
In 2011 Perlmutter was awarded for the Nobel Prize in Physics.
A note to the gaffe The team forgot that the universe expanded decelerated, the first and oldest
are the fastest images. Due to the finite speed of light their observations are
misinterpreted. They saw "the movie' backwards.
In author's opinion accelerated expansion is nonsense.
The expansion goes on until the universe sphere shell reaches its maximum size.
It is the moment the radius of the universe is maximal.
Beyond this sphere there is nothing at all, only emptiness. Even radiation is missing.
All matter in the universe reaches its own turning point.
The expansion energy for all matter is zero and the gravity-energy is maximal
The contracting universe sphere shell
The universe contracts in the direction of the universe centre.
It lasts billions of years. The contraction is due to gravity.
The shrink speed of each particle increases. (The particles themselves do not shrink.)
The contraction energy (kinetic energy) increases while the gravity energy decreases.
The arising massive central super star
This is the phase, that all matter begins to accumulate around the universe centre.
Just before the begin of the accumulation the contraction energy is maximal.
The radius of the central empty void reduced to zero.
Instead, the massive, central superstar arises.
In it the pressure and density increase dramatically.
The contraction energy is transferred into elastic energy,
because all matter is compressing each other. The speed of all matter decelerates rapidly.
Then the moment all matter of the universe has been accumulated for the most
in the arisen massive central super star.
All molecules have been compressed together into the biggest lump ever consisting of orions.
(They are the elementary particles according trio physics.)
The maximal density is a little bit more than the density in nuclei.
The orions can resist the strongers pressure ever, because they have no structure, is supposed.
(A singularity does not arise.)
The elastic energy reaches the highest magnitude, while in the universe total kinetic energy is zero.
Now the relaxation follows as the most gigantic explosion ever.
(It reminds the not existing big bang.)
The elastic energy starts to transfer into kinetic energy being expansion energy.
The empty central sphere arises and grows
At the moment, that all the portions are unscrewed from each other, the spring energy
has become zero while expansion energy is maximum and the same number listed earlier.
Behind the last matter, flying away, the empty sphere arises again.
The following phase equals the expansion phase described at the start
of the the universe cycle.
In all phases of this universal process the not yet mentioned temperature, electrical
and magnetic energy need their attention.
Without any exception the conservation laws of mass, charge, energy, momentum,
angular momentum, speed of light in vacuüm and the number of orions apply. (See trio physics)
During the cycle a lot happens the construction and decay of nuclei, atoms, all kind of stars
with planets, galaxies, the neutralon sea (zorions, dark matter; see trio physics), molecules,
gasses, vapours, liquids, solids and life.
The whole universe cycle is a bit similar to a tennis ball
which is beaten vertically up by a racket every time:
Tennis ball Universe cycle up through the air expansion highest point maximal radius fall through the air contraction first contact with the racket start clumping ball and racket deform increasingly central super star grows maximal deformation; turning point maximal compression; minimal radius; turning point elastic force accelerates the ball elastic force accelerates all matter outside ball comes off racket alle particles off each other repeat repeat
Begin and end postulate
The universe has always existed and will always exist;
there is no beginning and no end.
The entire cycle is repeated endlessly in the same way.
The described process is a energy neutral 'perpetual motion'.
The author considers this scenario as the most likely one.
Could there be a beginning and / or an end, then there are two hopeless questions:
what happened before the beginning and what will happen after the end?
May be there is a Creator after all!