The interpretation of red shift

The vast majority of astronomers thinks to know that the Doppler effect is the one and only
explanation of the red shift. That leads directly to inflation theory: the universe would
expand and the age of the universe is finite. As an introduction of the red shift an
explanation of the nature of the phenomenon has been shown below.
If you are familiar with red shift, then jump to the section entitled."Red shift is no science fiction"

The gas discharge tube
A gas discharge tube is a glass tube filled with a certain type of gas or vapour, usually at low pressure.
At the two ends of the glass metal contacts have been placed. Any gas cannot leak in or out.

If you put a potential difference of a few kilovolts on the two electrodes,
then sparks will skip: a gas discharge.
Usually sparks remain, so the gas in the tube continues to emit light.
You should darken the room to see it properly.
The electrical voltage which is at least necessary, will depend on the type of gas and its pressure.
Each gas shows its own specific colour. A fluorescent and a neon advertising lighting
are examples of a gas discharge tube.

High Voltage Source
A van-der-Graaff generator or a Wimshurst is to use as a power source.
The first electrostatic generator was invented by Otto von Guericke,
who became known by the Magdeburg hemispheres.
All electrostatic generators work on the separation of positive
and negative electrical charge by means of friction.



The line spectrum
Let light from a gas discharge tube through a slit and then let it pass a prism;
then a line spectrum is obtained. It consists of a number of parallel lines.
The various positioned lines in the spectrum show specific spectral colours.
They are characteristic for the radiating gas.
Each gas has its own colour pattern of lines.

When you let the same light pass through a pass grid you also get a spectrum
which exhibits the same coloured lines. Some fair glasses are based thereon.
Also with a reflection grid can design a spectrum. Think of a music CD.

Hydrogen in a tube
Let spark a tube filled with hydrogen, then a portion of the hydrogen molecules
dissociates (= split off) into two separate single atoms.
The not cleaved molecules send to people invisible infra red radiation.
Observing only works with suitable detectors.


The single hydrogen atoms emit light visible when the room is darkened.
The visible lines in the hydrogen spectrum form the so-called Balmer series,
the 'fingerprint' of atomic hydrogen.
Of each color the wavelength can be measured extremely accurately.

Hydrogen on a star
When an astronomer catches light of a star by a telescope, a broad beam of
star light is narrowed from a number of m2 to a few mm2.
Then the light amplification is about a million thanks to the 'funnel effect'.
Now there is enough light to create a spectrum.
In the spectrum of the observed stars Balmer colours are found brightly.
The conclusion of this "spectral analysis" is that all those stars contain
a lot atomic hydrogen.

Nevertheless a fundamental significant difference with the light from a hydrogen
tube is observed.
In most cases, the coloured lines are shifted in the direction of the red end of the spectrum.
It means that the wavelengths of the various colours have become longer.
This change is called the 'red shift'.
At relatively very little stars also a shift in the direction of the violet edge
of the spectrum was observed. It's called a 'violet shift'.

Red shift is no science fiction
The red shift is no science fiction. It is reality, experimentally measured
data, that the colours of the spectral lines of most of the stars have been shifted
in the direction of the red edge of the spectrum.
Spiral nebulae exhibit red shift without exception. They cannot be ignored.

More explanations
Red shift can be explained in four different physical ways
1. by the Doppler effect, an explanation with wave phenomena;
2. by the Compton effect, an explanation with collisions;
3. by the Arp effect. The age related explanation of astronomer Arp has still been contested.
4. by the Einstein effect.
Ze worden stuk voor stuk besproken.

1 The Doppler shift
By far the slightly longer wavelength, the most common explanation is the Doppler effect
existing in all kinds of waves, such as sound waves, light waves and water waves.
If the vibration source and the observer move away from each other, then the waves stretch.
Sound you hear as a lower tone than from the stationary source.
In light all colors shift to the red side. The faster the speed relative to the measuring viewer,
the longer the shift of the spectral lines.
This phenomenon is named after the Austrian physicist and professor Christian Doppler.

Expanding universe
The red shift of starlight can be explained as all those stars move away from Earth.
That gives the impression of the expanding universe.
It may be that the universe is growing as a result of the big bang.
The expansion is counteracted by the gravitational force, which is present between all matter.

Hubble's Law
The speed of the removing celestial object can be derived from the magnitude of the red shift.
Hubble's Law shows the relationship between the speed of an object relative to the earth and
the distance from the observer to the object: distance = speed × the Hubble time
If speed is a number of m/s and the distance a number of meters,
the Hubble time and 5·62 × 10 17 seconds ( = 17·8 billion years).
Please note, that this is not the age of the universe,
although the order of magnitude seems the same. In recent years, the value of the
Hubble time as a result of various concepts become very debatable.
Now the mentioned value applies. The Hubble time can and may change in history. So

Hubble's Law: distance in m = speed in m/s × 5·62 × 1017 s .

It is possible to measure the enormous distances in the universe indirectly
with the aid of certain type of variable stars the δ-Cepheids and supernovae.

Certainly until 2013 all speeds away from Earth were only derived from the doppler shift.
Other possible effect were neglecter completely.

Hubble and the solar system
When Neptune, the Sun and Pluto are exactly aligned, in that order, then we have the
longest distance in our solar system. That distance is (30 + 49) & times; the distance
from the Earth to the sun = 79 × 149 million km = 12 gigameters.
With Hubble's law is derived that the expansion rate is 21 micrometer/s.
So the expansion of the solar system is immeasurably small and so neclectatble.

2 The Compton shift
Each electro magnetic wave consists of photons moving with the unique speed of light.
When a photon collides with any matter particle, for example an electron,
the photon loses a small part of its energy. That means immediately,
that the colour is also changing a bit and always in the direction of the red.
That is the Compton effect.

The space between the stars, interstellar space, and especially between the galaxies,
the extragalactic space, is extremely empty. However, there are a few parts per km3 and
a photon sometimes moves through space thousands or millions of years and
therefore it travels the same amount of light years.
Then the risk of a collision to any particle is roughly proportional to the travel distance:
the longer the distance, the more Compton shift.
When a photon hits any particle, for instance an electron,
then the photon loses a fraction of its energy.
It means immediately the colour changes a bit,
always in the direction of the red. This is the compton effect.
The space between the stars, de interstellar space, and especially the space between the galaxies,
the extragalactic space, is extremely empty, high vacuum.
Nevertheless it contains a few number of particles in each km and when sometimes a photon trvels thousands or even millions of year through space and so covers
the same amount of light years, then the change for a collision is proportional to the travel time:
the longer the traveled space, the stronger the red shift.

3 The Arp shift
Halton Arp interprets the red shift as a gauge for the age of a star:
the younger the star, the stronger the red shift.
Some reasons for Arp
William Campbell discovered around the year 2000, that the red shift of young stars in our
Milky Way is systematically a little bit stronger than in the Large Magellan Cloud.
This is not yet understood. Arp's concepts might help here.
From astronomical observations made by Bruce Guthrie and Bill Napier it appears,
that red shifts of galaxies and quasars show some preference values:
the galaxies should dwell in large 'shells'; their center would be our Milky Way.
If the red shift would be explained by doppler, it would be completely incomprehensible.
Conclusion
Merely on the basis of the supposed expansion as a result of the big bang astronomers have
an estimate of the age and on the distance to the farthest perceivable objects created.
The other explanation capabilities make those estimates of the red shift totally
indeterminate and therefore unreliable.
Some astronomers recognize those opportunities, such as the rebellious Margaret Burbidge
but most astronomers experience it to be difficult to admit that their universe model
which is already decades old and which many assumptions are based on, might be wrong.

Some problems
According to the big bang theory, the universe was about eleven billion years old.
The age of the oldest stars, as known, is about sixteen billion years.
These two results are inconsistent with each other.
A child cannot be older than his father or mother.
The majority of astronomers believe actually just in the declaration of
the consequences of the big bang and the Doppler effect.
Nevertheless the other explanations of the red shift are quite possible.
But there is little or no attention.

In his book he gives more examples of objects with completely different red shifts
These objects seem to be connected by rarefied wisps of gas.
That is impossible of course, if the objects are far from each other.

Other problems
According to the expansion view the most distant objects that show a recognizable redshift,
are the supernovae, extremely violent explosions of stars.
One claims that the universe is still expanding slower. Astronomer Saul Perlmutter,
leader of the Supernova Cosmology Project in California, claims the opposite.
After fifteen years research at the end of the twentieth century, he discovered
along with Schmidt by studying at forty supernovae, they systematically showed a low
red shift. The most distant light has been the longest route and therefore the oldest route.
Saul Perlmutter got the Nobel prize for astronomy in 2011.

Objections
The author of this website does not agree with Perlmutter's conclusion.
Right after the begin of the universe its expanding speed was maximal.
After it, the expansion went decelerated due to gravity all around.
When today astronomers see the light with huge red shift of that beginning time,
it gives the impression that the universe is expanding accelerated.
So the acceleration is an illusion.
So an invented repelling force is completely superfluous.

4 The Einstein shift is relativistic.
This effect is not relevant for distances on the scale of a galaxy or further.



Astronomy
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