Up to the begin of Oreon hypothesis Physics Sciences

The world with oreons

A  new understanding
of nuclei and particles

C o n t e n t s

1 Introduction
2 The oreon hypothesis
3.Electrons and quantum physics
4 Nuclei
5 Nuclear transmutations and energy
6 Exotes
7 Neutralons
8 Unification of forces
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If a physicist tries to describe certain natural phenomena, while seemingly good,
but afterwards clumsy principles or postulates have been proposed, the scholars
must exercise ever more complex solutions to get credible results.
The author of the oreon hypothesis has the strong impression
that this has happened to nuclear physics and it is still up to date.
Nuclear physics has become unnecessarily complicated. The scholars can
determine themselves whether this impression is correct.

Unfortunately the oreon hypothesis contains many assumptions.
This is less attractive, but the author always shows the need
to (let) effect certain experiments to transform the hypothesis
into physical theory. The author hopes that appropriate institutes
are willing to perform experiments so that the hypotheses can be
refuted or hopefully be confirmed.

The hypothesis expects motivated billions of particles in the nuclei!
This is very awkward, but there is no objection to it!
Of course, this expectation must be demonstrated.

Among the physicists, Einstein is almost an idol, because his theory of
relativity has been accepted as absolute truth by scholars and students.
The author certainly does not claim that the theory of relativity would
be wrong. He even deeply responds to the concepts developed by Einstein,
which the thinker of a new hypothesis has been educated.

Einstein's concepts are totally incompatible with the views of the author.
He developed them from 2014 to 2017. For comparison,
the author has shown Einstein's explanations in gray.

The transition from the classical conservation laws of mass and energy to
relativistic conservation of mass-energy caused the loss of two
fundamental symmetries according to Noether’s theorem.
The five conservation laws of mass, charge, energy, impulse and
angular momentum including their corresponding symmetries are iron-strong.

An important advantage of the oreon hypothesis is
that a clear coherence between the nuclear phenomena and
the events with the 'elementary particles' occurs.

Another important advantage of the oreon hypothesis is
that the concepts involve a very far-reaching
simplification of nuclear physics.

1 Introduction

1.1 To saw
1.2 Chemical reactions
1.3 Nuclear reactions
1.4 Summery
1.5 &)

1.1 To saw

If you saw a bar through, then the mass of the bar is just
a little bit more than the masses of the two peaces together.
This ‘mass defect’ is easy to explain: note the sawdust
and the mass balance can be restored easily.

1.2 Chemical reactions

Before the time of Lavoisier usually a difference in the total mass
before and after a chemical reaction occurred. When Lavoisier discovered,
that gases were involved, he could explain the mass difference.
When he used air-tight vessels, soon he could formulate the law named after him,
Lavoisier’s law, historically the first conservation law,
namely the law of conservation of mass.

1.3 Nuclear reactions

In nuclear reactions, there is also always a mass defect.      Usually one uses Einstein’s E = mc2
Could it be that really some mass escapes during such a reaction?
This thought was the cause to the designs the oreon hypothesis.
The author does not claim that the theory of relativity is wrong.
He deeply respects Einstein's concepts.
The oreon theory is nothing but another description of the nuclear world.
Very simplistic: the mass loss is explained by extremely small emitted particles.

1.4 Summery
  • All matter has been built only by one kind of particles, the 'oreon',
    which can be charged electrically positively, neutral or negatively.

  • Antimatter does not exist. It is only an illusion.

  • A nucleus consists of a billion oreons.
    They are bound by electrical forces and much less by magnetic forces due to spins.
    Strong and weak nuclear forces have been replaced by electrical and magnetic forces.

  • The known ‘elementary particles’ are failed nuclei.
  • During a nuclear reaction there is always a seeming loss of mass due to escaping oreons.
    Mass is not converted into energy!
    The observed gain of energy is a decrease of electrical energy and a bit of magnetic energy.

The author is curious to know about the next facts.
  • Is his hypothesis coherent? Does the hypothesis contradict itself?
  • Does he make a mistake?
  • Can all experimental facts about nuclei and particles be explained by this hypothesis?

1.5 &)

An &) at the end of a text indicates, that an experimental confirmation is desired or even needed.

2 The oreon hypothesis

2.1 Postulates about oreons
2.2 Association of oreons
2.3 Coulomb postulate
2.4 Five conservation postulates
2.5 Noether's theorem
2.6 Three postulated conservation laws for oreons
2.7 Postulate; The dissociation principle
2.8 Another conservation law
2.9 Energy conversion
2.10 Neutrinos
2.11 Electrons
2.12 The natural number No
2.13 Positrons or positive electrons?
2.14 A negpo
2.15 Neutral electrons
2.16 βo-radiation
2.17 The amount of oreons in the universe

2.1 Postulates about oreons

The whole universe consists of only one kind of matter particles, the so-called oreons.
They are the building blocks of all leptons, mesons hadrons and nuclei.
The oreons are the only real elementary particles.
They are the smallest and lightest particles in the universe.
They are so small, that current (2017) measuring instruments cannot detect them. &)

All oreons have the same mass. The symbol for that mass is
. Because it is the smallest mass in the universe, this is the elementary mass.
The mass of any other particle is an integer multiple of . So mass is quantified.
The elementary mass is exactly No × as small as the mass of an electron.
No is a positive integer. So m(electron) = No × . (See later 2.11 because of the No)

Oreons are considered to be elastic spheres, almost making a hard sphere model.

All oreons have the same magnitude of spin, denoting as $.
$ equals half of the Dirac’s constant = /2.
$ is the elementary spin or oreon spin.
(Bosons have an even spin; fermions have odd spin.)

They owe their spin to the rotation around their axes.
This is contrary to the usual concept in quantum physics.

The poreons have positive charge + , the elementary electric charge.
The charge of the neutral oreons, zoreons, is exactly zero.
The negatively charged oreons each have charge – equal to the charge of an electron.

Still one of the greatest riddles in nature is what the mechanism is
how a positive and negative charge attract each other.
The statement of virtual photons is far from adequate.

The mass, charge and spin are the basic quantities of particles.
The , and $ are three natural constants also being three basic units.

2.2 Association of oreons

Oreons can have electric and/or magnetic bonds making larger particles.
Stable constructions made of oreons can arise.
Due to an excess of positive or negative charge composite particles can be unstable.

2.3 Coulomb postulate

Although it is not certain, that Coulomb's law is correct to the very smallest distances,
the author postulates that Coulomb's law remains valid up to the level of the oreons.
So it is a postulated model.

2.4 Five conservation postulates

When two or more oreons bind or release, always apply
the law of conservation of mass,
the law of conservation of energy,
the law of conservation of charge,
the law of conservation of momentum,
the law of conservation of angular momentum.

E = mc2 does not apply under any circumstances.
A relativistic mass defect does not exist within the oreon hypothesis.
Mass defects will be discussed later.

2.5 Noether's theorem

With Noether's theorem (1915) any conservation law is associated with a particular symmetry.
The law of conservation of energy is linked to the fact that all physical laws do not change
over time. (Translational symmetry along the time axis.)

The law of conservation of mass is linked to the fact that the zero of gravitational energy
may be chosen freely. (Translational symmetry along the gravitational energy axis.)
This conservation law makes mass additive.

In the theory of relativity these two conservation laws are replaced by one conservation
law of mass-energy. Then these two corresponding symmetries disappear being painful.

The law of conservation of charge is linked to the fact that the
zero point of electric energy or potential can be chosen freely.
(Translational symmetry along the electrical energy axis or the potential axis.)

The law of conservation of momentum is linked to the fact that measuring results
'here and there' (under the same circumstances) should yield the same result.
(Translational symmetry in the three dimensional space.)

The law of conservation of angular momentum is linked to the fact that rotation
over any angle in space does not affect the laws of nature. (Rotation-symmetry.)

2.6 Three postulated conservation laws for oreons

the law of conservation of positive oreons,
the law of conservation of neutral oreons and
the law of conservation of negative oreons.
Such a conservation is linked to the independency of the begin amount.

2.7 Postulate; The dissociation principle

As a particle (A) decomposes into the smaller particles B and C,
then in advance all of the fragments of B and C were in A.

Although this principle was always applied in the chemistry,
this principle is also useful for these new nuclear-physics and exotes.
The additivity and the dissociation principle apply in particular for a nucleus.

2.8 Another conservation law

By naming atoms neutral ions in chemistry the law of conservation
of number of ions can be formulated:
during every chemical reaction the number of ions
of each related element remains constant.

2.9 Energy conversion
During the binding of oreons the electrical energy decreases
while the rotational energy as well as the internal vibration energy
of the composite particles increase. Also photons occur.
By mutual collisions of the composite particles the rotation and
vibration energy can be converted into thermal energy.

2.10 Neutrinos

A neutrino consists of a small number of positive and
an equal amount of negative oreons.
Some neutral, magnetically bound oreons may be added.
So multiple types of neutrinos may exist.

2.11 Electrons

In an electron the difference of the numbers of
negative and positive oreons equals one.
An electron is a stable particle with mass = No × , charge – and spin $.

2.12 The natural number No

The mass of an electron = No × or No × the mass of an oreon.
The author has searched for the largest common divisor of the masses of neutrinos,
electrons and all known stable nuclei. Because the mass of neutrino's is not yet known exactly,
it can only be mentioned that the natural number No (the electron's mass) equals one of the values

1,735,5581,736,9951,74,9757 1,752,4601,789,123

When the mass of the electron-neutrino is accurately determined, the correct value of No can be chosen.

2.13 Positrons or positive electrons?

In a positive electron the number of positive oreons minus
the number of negative oreons equals one.
It is a stable particle with mass = No × , charge + and spin $.

A positive electron is ordinary matter! Oreon theory has no antimatter.
In oreon hypothesis antimatter is completely susperfluous.
Antimatter was a serious interpretation error of Dirac seen from the oreon hypothesis.
Mass is never negative. Positrons do not exist.

2.14 A negpo

When a positive and negative electron approach each other and hit
they do not annihilate, but they form a bond.
An electric dipole (+ –) arises., called a negpo, which also has
a magnetic quadrupole (↑ ↓), &)

To avoid the idea of the concept of antimatter the author does not speak
any longer about a positron but about a positive electron.

The unstable positronium 'atom' is known, a positron and electron moving around each other.
Soon they 'annihilate'. In fact they were a positive and negative electron becoming soon a negpo.

2.15 Neutral electrons

Postulate: neutral electrons exist. A neutral electron has been
composed of an equal amount of positive en negative oreons.
An odd number of neutral oreons is added due to the spin.

Neutral electrons cannot run around a nucleus due to lack of charge.

The author considers to introduce the names pelectrons, nelectrons and zelectrons.
(p = positive, n = negative and z = zero.)

2.16 βo-radiation

Postulate: neutral electrons are sometimes emitted from a nucleus as a still
unknown type of radioactivity, βo radiation in addition to β- and β+ radiation. &)
Who will discover the neutral electrons? &)

2.17 The amount of oreons in the universe
Presumably, the number of positive oreons or poreons in the universe equals the
number of noreons, because then the universe is electrically neutral.
Presumably the universe is apolar.
The number of neutral zoreons in the universe is completely unpredictable.

3. Electrons and quantum physics

3.1 Electrons around a nucleus
3.2 Three presentations and maybe another
3.3 The nature of quantum physics

3.1 electrons around a nucleus
In the oreon hypothesis electrons move with many km/s in the space of
an ion sizing, say, a nanometer. Thereby it seems an electron in the
ion is present everywhere at once. In photography it is called motion blur.

The quantum physicists claim, that an electron has been 'smeared'
in the space around the nucleus.

The negative electrons move around the positive nucleus.
For this centripetal force is needed, provided by the electrical attraction.

Constantly electrons repel each other with their negative charges.
Also vibrations of the nucleus and moves outside the ion contribute
to a serious disturbance of an ideal orbit around the nucleus.
All this can lead to an enormous chaos.
It's almost to conceive as a miracle, that in this apparent chaos
the quantum physicists have been able to order and describe
electron orbits (K, L, M, ...) and their orbitals (s, p, d, f, ...).
With the help of many thousands of measurements at ions it has been
discovered which orbits and orbitals are more probable than others.
The quantum physics describes in a mathematical way the possible
probability distribution over all possible states in an ion.

Often the ion can jump from one energy state into another and
these transitions have a certain (un-) probability.

Some transitions are impossible because of a threatening violation
of, for example, the law of conservation of angular momentum.
Such an impossible transition is called a forbidden transition.

3.2 Three presentations and maybe one more

Quantum physics has three presentations, which are completely equivalent:
– the <bra| and |ket> format of Paul Dirac, also called the Dirac notation,
– the complex wave functions of Erwin Schrödinger and
– the matrix notation developed by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and Pascual Jordan.
Three presentations combined are redundant 'luxury' and actually irritating for the student.
It would be nice if one presentation gets the preference.

In essence always probability distributions and eigenvalues have been involved,
while the Schrödinger's wave functions and matrices are really only mathematical tools.
Therefore, it would be great to find a formalism that probabilities and
eigenvalues combines directly, a challenge for didactics of quantum physics.

3.3 The nature of quantum physics

Quantum physics describes a lot and well and is very functional. But it explains nothing!
Quantum physics is nothing but a part of the probability theory applied to physical objects.
So it is applied mathematics.

4 Nuclei

4.1 Other suppositions
4.2 Each nucleus is a construction of billions of oreons.
4.3 Heisenberg’s indeterminacy
4.4 The form of a nucleus
4.5 (Un-) stability
4.6 The electrical charge of nuclei
4.7 Isomers
4.8 Isotopes
4.9 Equitopes, a new phenomenon
4.10 Isotonen, isodiaphers and mirror nuclei
4.11 The encoding of the composition of a nucleus

4.1 Other suppositions

In the new nucleus model protons, neutrons as well as strong and weak nuclear forces, quarks, gluons and colour forces lack.
String and branes assumptions are completely superfluous.

Protons and neutrons occur only during specific
radioactive decay as free particles.
A proton is still a 1H1 nucleus.

4.2 Each nucleus is a construction of billions of oreons.

If the mass of a nucleus is known thanks to the mass spectrometer,
the number of oreons can be calculated:
divide the ion mass by . Do not forget the electrons.

4.3 the Heisenberg’s indeterminacy

Due to the Heisenberg’s indeterminacy an electron would not be able
to exist in a nucleus, many quantum physicists always said. The position
of the electron would be known extremely accurate, because the nucleus
is gigantically small. And the impulse of the electron in the nucleus
must be zero average. But in a unique time point the impulse is completely unknown.
The same applies to oreons. The nucleus can be built by oreons.
The indeterminacy principle is only important during measurements.

The mass, charge and spin of the nucleus determine the distribution
of positive, negative and neutral oreons in that nucleus,
but not in a unique way, as will be discussed.

4.4 The form of a nucleus

The many oreons will generally arrange in a way that the positive
and negative oreons alternate each other as much as possible.
That looks like a salt crystal. Each nucleus is an electrically
positively charged femto crystal.

However, there are marked differences with a solid electrolyte.
The oreons are fermions and therefore they must comply with the
fermi-dirac-statistics. Therefore the nucleus is a fermi-dirac-crystal.

Pairing could lead to bosons and it means, that the
crystal could transform into a bose-einstein condensate.

In the common beliefs the nucleus obeys a drop model.
The protons move in a nuclear orbital.

In the oreon hypothesis the drop model is replaced by a crystal model.
The only movement that the oreons make is a three dimensional vibration.
The integral nucleus can rotate.

4.5 (Un-) stability
  • The zoreons (z = zero) are only bound with their spin to other oreons.
    This is always a relatively weak magnetic link.
  • The more zoreons compared to the charged oreons,
    the more unstable the nucleus.
  • The more vacancies, holes, a nucleus contains, the more unstable it is.
  • Pauli's exclusion principle forces to more holes
    due to the fact oreons are fermions.
  • Maybe more arguments for (un-)stability occur in a nucleus or
    compound particle.
  • The more stable a nucleus is, the less likely it decays,
    the longer the half-life is.

4.6 The electrical charge of nuclei

In the common physics the charge of the nucleus equals the number of protons.

Regular crystals are usually (almost) electrically neutral,
while the femto crystals are positively charged; the nucleus is positive.
In this new nuclear physics the charge of a nucleus Z
equals the algebraic sum of all charges in the nucleus,
all charges expressed in .

4.7 Isomers

Isomers are nuclei with the same composition but with different energy.
This is because they possess different spatial structures.
The more compact, the lower the electrical and magnetic energy.
The lowest energy content is achieved with the closely packed spheres model.

4.8 Isotopes

When a zoreon or poreon-noreon-pair is added to a nucleus or is removed from it,
then an isotope of the same element is created.

Isotonen, kernen met een gelijk aantal neutronen, spelen geen rol meer.

4.9 Equitopes, a new phenomenon

If in a nucleus a poreon and noreon together are replaced by two zoreons,
then the mass and charge remain the same . In that case, by definition,
there is an other equitope.
Equitopes are a new phenomenon in the nuclear physics.
They are special isotopes. Will be continued in 5.2.3.

4.10 Isotonen, isodiaphers and mirror nuclei

Isotones, nuclei with the same amount of neutrons,
isodiaphers, nuclei with the same difference of numbers of neutrons and protons,
lost their meaning, because nuclei do not contain neutrons nor protons.
The same applies to mirror nuclei. (NZ)

4.11 The encoding of the composition of a nucleus
As an example we consider (according to the usual format) the isotope 9F19.
A new encoding is not wanted, because numbers more than a billion are very clumsy to handle.
That is why the usual format as 9F19 is preferable.

Determining the proper composition of a nucleus is not a sinecure.
The mass, charge and spin give the most important clues but do not give unambiguity.
Think of holes, equitopes and different structures.

5 Nuclear transmutations and nuclear energy

5.1 In general
5.1.1 Types of nuclear transmutations
5.1.2 ‘Mass defect’
5.1.3 Energy change in nuclear reactions
5.1.4 A new attempt to free up nuclear energy
5.1.5 No nuclear change without cause
5.2 Radioactive decay or radioactivity
5.2.1 Gamma radiation
5.2.2 Βeta-decay
5.2.3 Equitopes, very related nuclei
5.2.4 Electron capture
5.2.5 Other radioactive processes
5.2.6 Relatively few stable nuclei 5.2.7 The 'spontaneous' splitting of some very heavy nuclei
5.3 Fusion
5.3.1 Fusion of deuterium (as an example)

5.1 In general

5.1.1 Types of nuclear transmutations
Nuclei can change by different types of radioactivity, electron capture, fission, fusion and bombarding.

5.1.2 ‘Mass defect’
These nuclear transmutations can only occur with a 'mass defect'.
This mass defect is deceptive, because around 1% of the total mass is
taken away by oreons, flying-away unnoticed, bound or not.
Especially the neutral zoreons and negpoes are difficult to detect.&)

The 'mass defect' is not the cause of the nuclear reaction,
because the cause is the decrease in electrical energy.

During a nuclear reaction the total mass does not increase ever,
because the change is extremely small, that during the
reaction millions of oreons would be picked up from the surroundings.
We rely on the law of conservation of mass and count with it.

5.1.3 Energy change during nuclear reactions

The energy yielded during nuclear reactions is not the result of E = mc2.
Mass defects would be converted into energy. Here we meet
a stark contrast between the oreon hypothesis and Einstein!

The energy yield of nuclear reactions, according to the oreon hypothesis,
is the result of the decrease of the electric energy of the participating
nuclear particles. That means, that the distance of the nuclear
particles shrank on average.
To a lesser extent also the decrease of the magnetic
energy plays a role but certainly it contributes.

5.1.4 A new attempt to free up nuclear energy
Possibly the oreons vibrate in the nucleus. With suitable electromagnetic
radiation and/or magnetic fields around an alternating current it may be
possible to let vibrate the oreons more strongly, perhaps even to resonance.
It is intended to let vibrate the oreons in the nuclei
causing nuclear fission in this way.
If the released nuclear energy is more than the supplied energy,
it is possible to have found a cost-effective 'energy source'.
Basically it doesn't matter much which kind of nucleus is chosen.
The cheapest is it a common isotope as test substance.
Maybe radioactive waste can be used. That could give a nice clean up. &)

5.1.5 No nuclear change without cause
As a relatively unstable nucleus is hit by a K-or L-electron,
it might cause the decay of the nucleus.
A part of the energy of the K-electron is transferred,
enough to let decay the nucleus. So, for example, an α-particle
or proton can escape from the nucleus.

Then the quantum physical tunnel effect is not required.
There is no mathematical escape.
Another case of tunneling: the scanning tunneling microscope
Wikipedia: The scanning tunneling microscope works ...
with a needle of which the point contains only a single atom.
This probe is placed just above the object so close that the wave functions of the needle
and the object overlap. As soon this happens, tunneling of electrons occurs:
electrons can tunnel through the space between the object and the needle,
and a current starts to run. Due to the exponential decrease of the wave functions, the tunnel flow
is strongly dependent on the exact distance between the object and the needle.
By moving the needle up or down the tunnel flow can be adjusted.

In the oreon hypothesis the explanation is as follows.
Between the needle and the object in the scanning tunneling microscope an electric potential
difference is available. It causes an electrical force on each electron.
On average this force is not strong enough to let make the electrons the desired leap.
Only the fastest electrons that move just the right direction can make the jump to cause a current.
It looks like evaporation. The fastest molecules escape first.
Also the collision can happen by an external source, such as cosmic radiation. &)
It does not seem to be possible to affect K or L electrons tapping.

Experimentally it is already established, that foreclosure of cosmic
radiation leads to greater stability of radioactive nuclei.
The change of the nucleus never happens just without cause!!
If a collision actually happens, then an X-ray line spectrum
would pop up,because the K-shell should be filled up again.
This has yet to be investigated experimentally. &)

Tap with a bundle of neutrons is possible too.
With this technique the half-life can be influenced! &)

5.2 Radioactive decay or radioactivity

5.2.1 Gamma radiation

When a mother nucleus jumps from a higher energy state to a lower one,
a definite amount of energy is released as monochromatic γ-radiation.
Then the mother and daughter nuclei are isomers;
they have the same composition and mass.
The nuclear particles are ordered only energetically more favorably.
Some vacancies, holes, are filled up.

5.2.2 β-decay
β-emitters send positive, neutral(!) or negative electrons.
In advance they were as an oreon lump in the nucleus.

In a bubble chamber the energy of the electrons is not equal for all.
It shows that the kinetic energy of the particles differs.
Apparently all electrons in the nucleus are not bound equally
strongly as a result of their different locations in the nucleus.

During β-emission all classical laws of conservation hold.

In the standard theory lepton conservation exists.
In oreon theory it is no longer necessary, because,
among other things, antimatter does not exist.

5.2.3 Equitopes, very related nuclei

This concept is unknown in the common physics. Eenduidige manier van verval Postulate: each kind of radioactive nucleus can decay in only one way.

However, some radioactive isotopes seem to be able to decay in at least two ways.
For example bismuth-212 can be both an α- and β-emitter.

How about that?
The common physics says it is an accidental choice of the nucleus.

The oreon theory assumes that there are (at least two)
different bismuth-212-nuclei, equitopes.
They differ a bit in composition and energy content.

Many β-emitters (both positive and negative) also exhibit K-catch.
Also that fact points to multiple nuclei being very related.

The number of equitopes per nucleus can be great. Presumably, even most likely,
not all the thinkable equitopes are realized in nature.

In stable isotopes equitopes cannot be found.
In most cases, all possible variants do not show themselves. &) A possible experiment
A professor who analyzed the oreon hypothesis asked how to separate equitopes.
The answer should be that certainly it will be difficult to accomplish
such a task. But is it useful? No, with current knowledge it is not.
Then how is experimental confirmation of the hypothesis
that an unstable equitope can end in one way? It could happen as follows.

Choose an isotope that can expire in two ways, in (for example)
30% of cases α-radiation is detected and 70% β-radiation.
Then it seems obvious that there is 30% of one equitope and 70% of the other.

Determine an amount of that isotope with (for example) a bundle of thermal neutrons.
Each of the two equitopes will respond in its own specific way.
There will be two types of reactions with two types of end products.
If it occurs also in the ratio of 30% / 70%, the hypothesis is confirmed.
(There may be complications but it goes too far to discuss them.).

After this experiment, other projectiles than neutrons can also be used.
If the mentioned ratio is maintained, the likelihood of
the existence of equitopes is only more likely.

5.2.4 Electron capture
Prevalently electron capture is considered to be a radioactive process.
The author sees it as fusion.
During electron capture a K-electron (sometimes an L-electron) settles into the nucleus.
Two good examples are Be-7 and Mg-22. Then a(n almost) isobaric nucleus pops out.

Traditionally it is said, that an electron and a proton fuse.
The old theory also says, that just for no apparent reason nuclei decay.
In the oreon physics both are incorrect. Lepton conservation is obsolete.

5.2.5 Other radioactive processes
A nucleus can get rid of his excess energy by emitting a neutron (0n1), a proton (1H1),
a deuteron (1H2) or a helium nucleus (2He4).
Only a split second before their emission they arise
from the available oreons, always due to a collision.
Already earlier the possible βo-radiation has been mentioned. It consists of neutral electrons.&)
A negpo can also be emitted. (It is an electric dipole consisting of a positive and negative electron.)&)

5.2.6 The 'spontaneous' splitting of some very heavy nuclei
Examples of some nuclei are 92U238, 94Pu236 and 98Cf252.
Splitting can be seen as radioactive decay. It is to be expected,
that this splitting involving a hit by K-or L-electrons or by cosmic radiation. &)

5.2.7 Relatively few stable nuclei
Likely nuclei and other particles arose in an extremely hot state.
By far, most of the hotchpotches of oreons are completely unstable,
because they were created in an extreme chaotic state. Actually,
it is unimaginably accidental when a stable structure arises!
If you throw a pile of stones randomly, how bulky is the chance
of getting a stable house?

5.3 Fusion

5.3.1 Fusion of deuterium (as an example)
Assume, that two deuterons (heavy hydrogen nuclei) fuse into one helium nucleus.
So: 1H2 + 1H2 → 2He4.
(Intermediate steps during fusion are irrelevant for the reasoning according to Hess’s law.)

The masses of the charged deuterons and alpha particles are accurately known
thanks to the mass spectrometer. The mass balance of this fusion provides
2m(deuteron) → m(helium nucleus) + 46·63 × m(electron).
Then the mass defect is the mass of 46·63 × No oreons.
These oreons carry a lot of kinetic energy.
Possibly some oreons made a bond.

Due to extreme heat presumably these particles were never detected or overlooked.
After all the energy yielded is the aim and certainly oreons were not expected.

It is worth to try to observe the oreons during fusion. &)

6 Exotes
6.0 Failed, unstable, naked nuclei
6.1 The quarks of the standard model
6.2 Bombardings and collisions;
6.3 The existence of exotes
6.4 Baryons
6.5 Composition of a muon
6.6 Decay of a muon
6.7 The machine gun effect
6.8 Time dilation?
6.9 Global Positioning system (GPS)
6.10 Strangeness and isospin

6.0 Failed, unstable, naked nuclei

In common physics very many ' elementary ' particles are known.
They are divided into hadrons, mesons and leptons. The author calls them exotes.
See 6.3 soon. They all are made of oreons.

Exotes can be seen as failed, unstable, naked nuclei with or without electrical charge.
That is why they are coded as a nucleus: charge - name - number of amu.
The best known exotes are the neutron and muon.

6.1 The quarks of the standard model

The masses of the quarks in the standard model are all calculated
and based on theory that is not supported by oreon physic.
Therefore (the calculated values of) these particles are ignored.
Quarks can never occur in free state and therefore never directly measured.
In oreon physics quarks are no existing objects.

Also with the oreon model it is possible to observe three sub-nuclei
within a hydrogen nucleus. Mathematically it can be checked whether
or not that would be more favorable than one clump.

6.2 Bombardings and collisions

Always inelastic collisions between particles cause rearrangements of the oreons.

Of course collisions of nuclei with energy-rich particles
can arise both as a result of cosmic radiation and/or
radioactivity as by artificial generation (in particle accelerators).

The energy richer the bullets are (accelerated ions, protons, electrons),
the more the target nucleus is fragmented.
Cosmic radiation can make it very violent.

6.3 The existence of exotes

The vast majority of exotes are not free in nature or maybe they live extremely short.
In the cosmic radiation a well-known exception is the muon,
living long enough to penetrate the atmosphere of the Earth.
So the exotes arise mainly during collisions.
This creates all kinds of debris, oreons (groups).
After a collision they might unite to a lot of different combinations.

The following division comes from the standard theory.
Remember, that each particle in the standard theory has an anti particle.
Anti matter does not exist in the oreon hypothesis.

Baryonen Hyperonen
Omegas decay into xi’s and pions.Xis decay into lambdas and pions.
Lambdas decay into protons and pions.Sigmas decay into protons and pions.
Neutrons decay into protons and elektrons.

Ds and Etas decay into pions.Kaons decay into pions.
Pions decay into muons.

Tauons decay into muons.Muons decay into elektrons.
This list is far from complete, because there are at least two hundred
particles appointed, a hundred ordinary and a hundred anti particles.

6.4 Baryons

Eventually all baryons decay in steps into protons and electrons,
both composed of oreons. Because of the dissociation principle
it should be assumed that all baryons are composed of oreons.

6.5 Composition of a muon

After some steps all tauons and mesons decay to positive,
neutral and negative electrons. Because of the dissociation
principle we should assume that all leptons and mesons
are composed of electrons and so of oreons.

The mass of a muon is virtually 207 × the mass of an electron.
So a muon contains about 207 × No oreons.
(An electron consists of No oreons.)

A muon contains one noreon more than poreons, so its charge is ─.
The odd number of oreons ensures that the spin of the muon is one $,
the elementary spin or oreon spin.

6.6 Decay of a muon

During the decay of a muon only one electron is detected experimentally.

6.7 The machine gun effect

Therefore, the author assumes that the muon shoots one electron every time,
as a machine gun until the muon expired completely. That is the machine gun effect.
So the muon does not explode as a grenade. In the same way the other mesons decay.
This escapes the attention of the electron detector,
because it is not quick enough to distinguish all these electrons.
It observes only one. After all, the dead time of an electron-detector
is 0.1 to 0.3 milliseconds.

Similarly, the composition and decay of the remaining mesons can be recorded. &)
A poreon and noreon can also be emitted as a pair.
The electron detector does not see the pair.

As a task it remains open to find the right distribution of the positive,
neutral and negative oreons in all the mentioned exotes.&)

6.8 Time dilation?

The machine gun effect gives the illusion of time dilation,
because the process takes time.
The alleged time dilatation is also discussed
at the particle accelerator; (7.5(.2)).

6.9 Global Positioning system (GPS)

Another case of assumed time dilation; considered differently.
The clocks in a communication satellite appear to be a bit slower than on earth.
That does not need to be a relativistic time dilation.
Although the clocks may be identical, the local circumstances are different.
The gas pressure and the gravity (g) are different.
The clock in a satellite is weightless.
This can explain the observed time difference by assuming
that the distance of the molecules of the clock is a little bit different.
It reminds of a pendulum: the swing time of the pendulum depends on its length.

6.10 Strangeness and isospin

In the standard theory a quantum number strangeness exists.
The kaons have a strangeness of +1 or ─1.
With the use of only oreons there is no need for this quantity,
because the definition of strangeness deals with anti matter.

Isobaric spin or isospin is a quantum number related to the strong
interaction and the quarks with color strength. Also this number does not play any role anymore.

7 Neutralons

7.1 Neutral exotes
7.2 Neutralon sea
7.3 The velocity of light
7.3.1 A fixed speed
7.3.2 The vector sum of speeds
7.4 Three more postulates
7.5 Increasing mass
7.5.1 Explanation
7.5.2 In a particle accelerator
7.6 The first and second Brownian motion
7.6.1 Definitions
7.6.2 The casimir effect
7.6.3 An own attempt to make believe the existence of neutralons
7.6.4 Another attempt
7.6.5 A remark
7.7 The shift of the perihelion of the planet Mercury
7.8 Anomalies of Newtonian gravity
7.9 Gravity waves?
7.10 Light in the neutralon sea
7.11 Shell electrons in the neutralon sea

7.1 Neutral exotes

Outside the nucleus poreons, noreons and zoreons can make all kinds of combinations.
That leads to all kinds of particles, exotes.
If the number of poreons is equal to the number of noreons, neutral exotes arise.
These are the neutralons. The most famous neutralon is the neutron.

7.2 Neutralon sea

Oreon theory assumes, that the entire universe is full of this neutralons
as the most perfect ideal gas: the neutralon sea.
Most types of these particles are so small that they are to detect barely or not at all.
Thereby it is not (yet) possible to measure the quantity per volume.
Also the concentration of various types is therefore not yet known.
Sooner or later a negative particle will meet a positive one in the vacuum.
They will bind. Therefore, there is a surplus of neutral particles in space.

The neutralon sea reminds the aether theory being more than a century old.
Einstein postulated carefully, that the aether (then) was not perceptible.

7.3 The velocity of light

7.3.1 A fixed speed The neutralon sea as a medium causes a limit for the velocity of
electromagnetic radiation. The c equals 299,792,458 m/s.

In oreon physics waves of the neutralon sea itself can be faster than c.
It can be a longitudinal mechanical pressure wave and a spin wave.
A number of paranormal phenomena can be explained with these kind of waves.
With the aid of certain paranormal phenomena can be determined their superluminal speed. &)

A recommended book for this: "Cosmic vision"
Subtitle "Science and the Akashic field"
by Ervin Laszlo

7.3.2 The vector sum of speeds
A) When a swimmer crosses a river and you want to know his speed relative to the banks,
     then you have to calculate the vectorial sum of
     the speed of the swimmer relative to the water and
     the speed of the water relative to the banks.

B) The earth moves around the sun with 29.8 km/s and the solar system
     moves around the central black hole of our Milky Way with (235 ± 15) km/s.
     The light moves with 300 Mm/s through the vacuum or neutralon sea.

C) Michelson and Morley could measure with sufficient accuracy that the velocity of light
     in vacuum relative to earth for all wavelengths is always 299,792,458 m/s,
     regardless of the speed of the light source and regardless of the observer's speed.
     In short it is 300 Mm/s.

How A) B) and C) can be understood combined?

In the begin of the 20th century any explanation failed.
This was the reason that the aether theory was rejected.
Einstein needed the Lorentz transformation to understand it.

The author of the oreon hypthesis postulates that
the velocity of light as a vector does not let itself combine with any other speed.

Both Einsteins's and author's explanations are rather peculiar and crazy!
The long and the short of all this is next in the oreon hypothesis.

Regardless of the speeds of a light source and observer, both relative to the neutralon sea,
the velocity of electromagnetic radiation in the neutralon sea is always 299,792,458 m/s
for all wavelengths.

7.4 Three more postulates

Maybe you yourself discovered them already.
- The oreons are comparable with the higgs-particles.
- Then the neutralon sea would equal the higgs field.
- Maybe the neutralon sea is de missing dark mass in galaxies.

7.5 Increasing mass

7.5.1 Explanation

When I eat, my mass increases, because more matter is adding to my body.
That is the principle that mass increases due accelerated particles in oreon physics explained.
This mass formula of Einstein
works experimentally very well
and therefore you have to respect it.
Within the oreon hypothesis this formula is (preliminary) purely empirical.

- When a particle accelerates, it catches neutralons and the mass increases.
- When a particle decelerates, it loses them and the mass decreases. Hysteresis is possible. &)
- When the speed remains constant, the particle loses as many neutralons as it catches.
  Then the mass will remain the same; a dynamic equilibrium. &)

7.5.2 In a particle accelerator
Experimentally is established, that the mass of an ion appears to increase with speed.
One of the possibilities to declare this is, that during crossing the neutralon sea
the ion absorbs neutralons, a kind of sweep up.

Maybe it is possible to get a rough estimate of the number of neutralons per volume
to do by assuming that their presence in the vacuum is the only cause of
the observed increase of the mass (apparent?) of the accelerated ions in an accelerator.

The mass increase in an accelerating particle affects its composition.
Particles are entrapped in it. This might affect the pace of decay.
The 'time dilation' can be explained this way.
The half-life is increasing because the additional positive and negative particles seem to give more stability.

7.6 The first and second Brownian motion

7.6.1 Definitions

Einstein and the Russian Marian Smoluchowski developed the theory of the Brownian motion.
In oreon hypothesis the Brownian motion due to the presence of a gas is defined as
first-order-Brownian motion.

Also the neutralons should cause Brownian motion, just as a gas.
This is called the second-order-Brownian motion.

If under ordinary circumstances Brownian motion is observed, this is the result of both.
Would be the first or second Brownian motion have the upper hand? Worth an investigation. &)

When the second order brownian movement is observed, the existence of neutralons will be proved.
The casimir effect can be used as the direct proof of the existence of neutralons.

7.6.2 The casimir effect
Two neutral, parallel, metal plates attract each other.
(This is quantum mechanical Van der Waals force.)
This weak casimir force is well measurable when the distance of the plates varies
from 0·1 to 9 μm. That is why the plates have to be vey flat.
Usually the attraction is explained by quantum fluctuations:
normal and their anti particle arise and disappear.

Between the plates most particles will be interferenced due to their debroglie wavelength.
So the particle density between the plates is lower than outside.
Experimentally it causes attraction due to a measured pressure difference
being inversely proportional to the fourth power of the distance of the plates.
The oreon hypothesis explains this as follows.
A fish swims in the water. The water does not flow through its body thanks to its skin.
Matter 'swims' in the neutralon sea. However the neutralons penetrate all matter
so as well the two metal plates.
Between the plates most particles will be interferenced due to their debroglie wavelength.
In order to explain the casimir force
quantum fluctuations are superfluous, because always particles are present anywhere.

7.6.3 An own attempt to make believe the existence of neutralons &)
To discover the second-order-Brownian motion, the first-order-Brownian motion
must be ‘extinguished’. This can be done in a vacuum.
(Maybe a thermal equilibrium exists between a gas and the neutralon sea.
If not, then this can be done by cooling the gas down to virtually zero kelvin.)

Possibly, that the larger particles that exhibit two-order-Brownian motion,
can be activated to the emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Then perhaps doppler broadening of the spectral lines might occur.
If the second-order-Brownian-motion is observed,
the existence of neutralons is very plausible.

7.6.4 Another attempt &)
Measure the mass of a flywheel as accurately as possible before it has rotated.
Let it spin for a year. During that time its nuclei absorb a quantity of neutralons.
Try to determine the mass increase.
If found, the existence of the neutralon sea has been proved.

7.7 The shift of the perihelion of the planet Mercury
Because the ellipse orbit of Mercury rotates, the orbit of this planet
is not a real ellipse but rosette-shaped. Relativity gives a suitable explanation.
The author searches the cause in the friction that Mercury feels in its orbit,
not only due to the neutralon sea but also of slight amount of matter in
interplanetary space (cosmic dust). As far as known,
the solar wind and the magnetic field of Mercury have never been taken in account.
The braking effect is the cause of the rosette orbit.
The solar radiation compensates the heat dissipation.

7.8 Anomalies of Newtonian gravity

— The orbits of the planets expand faster than to understand with loss of solar mass.
— The Pioneer probe flying at the outer limit of the solar system,
    slows down more strongly than can be explained with Newton.
Both can be explained with the friction caused by the neutralon sea.

The slight increase of the kinetic energy of a space vehicle,
flying along a celestial body, cannot be explained this way.
Maybe electrical attraction has been added to the gravity.

7.9 Gravity waves?

On 11 February 2016 the message came in the news, that for the first time
a gravitational wave was detected by the team of physicist Jo van den Brand.
The cause would have been a collision between two neutron stars.

According to the author of oreon theory sometimes there is a strong
second-order-Brownian motion or a density wave in the neutralon sea.
These motions occur regularly. Sometimes they are stockier than modal.
Everywhere in the universe second-order-Brownian motions may be observable.

7.10 Light in the neutral sea

In 7.4, it was postulated that the neutralon sea could be the dark mass of the spiral nebulae.
That implies that the neutralons are sensitive to gravity.
Consequently, the concentration of neutralons increases when the distance to a star decreases.
It means that the neutralon sea near a star is optically denser than further from that star.
As a result, light is broken in the direction of a star.
Then a star acts as a lens. Astronomers observe this phenomenon.
So the lens action is a consequence of refraction of light.

The astronomers always asserted that the light is attracted by the star's gravity.
That was explained by the spacetime curvature.

Apparently the light does not have to be sensitive to gravity.

Also the interstellar matter is densed around a star and it contributes to the light refraction too.

A 'neutron star' and a black hole are extremely strong concentrations of the neutralon sea.
A better name could be oreon star or oreonic concentration.

7.11 Shell electrons and the neutralon sea
The electrons moving around a nucleus, the so-called shell electrons,
should lose kinetic energy in two ways.
  • Each charged particle, which moves accelerated emits radiation according to Maxwell.
    The shell electrons also accelerate due to the centripetal force.
  • The shell electrons move through the neutralon sea.
Both effects would cause these electrons to end at the nucleus soon.
Nevertheless, the electron shells and orbitals appear to be stable.
The conclusion should be that the energy that would be lost,
is returned by the neutralons.

8 Unification of forces

8.1 Nuclear forces
8.2 Vanderwaals force
8.3 Gravity
8.4 Unification of forces

8.1 Nuclear forces

In the new nuclear physics only the electric and magnetic forces exist.

8.2 Vanderwaals force

A (neutral) ion or molecule consists of more than a billion charged particles.
It is not to conceive as an electric and magnetic dipole, quadrupole, ...,
but as a mega pole of very high order.
The electric and magnetic interaction between mega poles is on the scale
of a laboratory the vanderwaals force. (Debije, London)

8.3 Gravity

8.3.1 Pushing gravity
      This text about gravity has not been created by the author. Source??
The pushing gravity hypothesis of George Louis deSage (1748) and Fatio de Duiller (1690)
gets new chances thanks to the oren hypothesis.

8.3.2 Megapoles
According to Andrej Sacharov (Russia, 1968) the resulting power of electric charges,
dipoles, quadrupoles, ... and mega poles as well as the magnetic dipoles,
quadrupoles, ... and mega poles form gravity on the scale of a planet or star.

The gravity constant is not 100% stable.
This is due to the various compositions of, for example, stars and planets.

8.4 Unification of forces

According to the oreon hypothesis in the universe only electrical and magnetic forces exist.
They are united to electromagnetic forces.

A   Appendices

A1       Conceptions about
      A1.1 space
      A1.2 time
A2       Coulomb's Law
A3       List of stable nuclei
A4       Champions
A5       The decay of exotics

A1   Conceptions about space and time

A1.1 The three-dimensional space

  • Space is only a mathematical concept
  • Space cannot expand. Only matter can expand.
  • Space cannot bend. Only a solid can bend.
  • Space itself cannot cause any force.
  • Space has no matter nor energy, however it is filled with it.
  • Space always contains radiation and force fields.
  • A Vacuum is a part of space in which the gas pressure is less than one bar.
  • Space is full of neutralons.
  • The quantum vacuum is nothing but the neutralon sea.

A1.2 Time

  • Time passes always and everywhere perfectly smoothly.
    This can only be formulated as a postulate.
  • Any consequences:
    • Time dilation is an illusion. (See muons and particle accelerators);
    • Time can never reverse (Feynman diagrams in relation to antimatter);
    • There is no connection between space and time
      except at the definition of speed and acceleration.
  • Time reversal can be seen as a meaningless 'mathematical joke',
    but no real physical happening. Think of
    declining chemical reactions, friction, heat dissipation, radioactive decay,
    absorption of all kinds of radiation, biological evolution and processes.
    All these exceptions (which seem to be more normal!) make time reversal
    a general illusion, even if time reversal in a small part of
    physics plays a role. Where would be the limit?
  • (In addition, mirror symmetry of time is not
    associated with a conservation act.)
  • Oreon physics is not symmetrical in time.

A2   Coulomb’s law

In general
Two oppositely charged particles attract each other with Qq/(4πεod2).
If the electrical energy in infinity is chosen zero,
the electrical energy is relative to the other -Qq/(4πεod).
The author assumes that Coulomb’s law applies at least to dimensions of oreons.

The radius of an electron
Consider the association of a positive and negative electron. (Positronium).

The decrease of the electrical energy of an electron is
Qq/(4πεod1 - Qq/(4πεod2 = €2/ (4πεo) × (1/d2 – 1/d1).
Filling in numbers with SI units. It delivers the order of magnitude
9 × 109 × (1·6 × 10-19) 2 × {1/d – 1/(10-9)} joules.

It is known that a gamma photon of 511 keV = 8·18 × 10-14 joules is generated per particle.
2.30 × 10-28 × {1 / d - 1 / (10-9)} = 8·18 × 10-14.
Then d, the distance of the positive and negative electron has become 2·8 femtometers.
When they are conceived as spheres touching each other, their diameter is about 1·4 fm
and therefore the radius is 0·7 fm.

A3   Table of stable nuclei>

      mass without the electrons!

Z element mass spinZ in m in atomic
mass units
Spin in $
1H1·0081164 127Co58·9183833 748Cd105·8801272 065Tb158·8896891 3
1H2·0135534 248Cd109·8766703 0
28Ni57·9199827 048Cd110·8778463 166Dy159·8889912 0
2He3·0149322 128Ni59·9154262 048Cd111·8764260 066Dy160·8907271 5
2He4·0015061 028Ni60·9156958 348Cd113·8770267 066Dy161·8905921 0
28Ni61·9129849 066Dy162·8925249 5
3Li6·0134773 228Ni63·9126058 049In112·8771776 966Dy163·8929685 0

4Be9·0099879 229Cu62·9136887 350Sn111·8773890 067Ho164·8935672 7
29Cu64·9118807 350Sn113·8753500 0
5B10·0101941 650Sn114·8759130 168Er166·8947448 7
5B11·0065621 330Zn65·9095760 050Sn115·8743120 068Er167·8950668 0
6C11·9967085 030Zn67·9083868 550Sn117·8741740 0
6C13·0000635 130Zn69·9088619 050Sn118·8758790 169Tm168·8963613 1
50Sn116·8755230 1
7N13·9992339 231Ga68·9085676 350Sn119·8747657 070Yb169·8963612 0
7N14·9962708 131Ga70·9076953 350Sn121·8760100 070Yb170·8979252 1
70Yb171·8979809 0
8O15·9905264 032Ge72·9059043 951Sb120·8758381 570Yb172·8998102 5
8O16·9947434 532Ge73·9036232 051Sb122·8762364 770Yb173·9004615 0

9F18·9934658 133As74·9034934 352Te121·8745177 0 71Lu174·9018226 7
34Se75·9005619 052Te122·8757438 0
10Ne19·9869542 034Se76·9012623 152Te123·8742917 172Hf175·9019108 0
10Ne20·9883612 334Se77·8986574 052Te124·8759045 172Hf176·9037229 7
10Ne21·9858992 034Se79·8978696 052Te125·8747855 072Hf177·9042010 0
52Te125·8747855 072Hf178·9063183 9
11Na22·9837349 335Br78·8991368 372Hf179·9070522 0
35Br80·8970903 353 I 126·8753983 5
12Mg23·9784590 073Ta181·9081579 0
12Mg24·9792540 536Kr81·8937347 054Xe127·8739080 0
12Mg25·9760100 036Kr82·8943871 954Xe128·8751561 174W182·9096281 1
36Kr83·8917581 054Xe129·8738847 074W183·9103363 0
13Al26·9744075 554Xe130·8754591 3
37Rb84·911789738 554Xe131·8745302 075Re184·9118115 5
14Si27·9692469 0
14Si228·9688149 138Sr83·8925790 055Cs132·8752800 776Os185·9121461 0
14Si29·9660899 038Sr85·8884142 076Os186·9140584 1
38Sr86·8880311 956Ba133·8737879 076Os187·9141461 0
15P30·9655333 138Sr87·8847661 056Ba137·8745267 076Os188·9164554 3
56Ba134·8749681 376Os189·9167549 0
16S31·9632937 139Y88·8844554 156Ba135·8738554 076Os191·9197886 0
16S32·9626815 3 56Ba136·8751069 3
16S33·9590896 040Zr89·8827612 0 77Ir190·9183533 3
16S35·9583035 040Zr91·8830976 057La138·8750842 777Ir192·9206857 3
41Nb92·8838863 9
17Cl34·9595268 3 58Ce139·8736211 078Pt193·9198911 0
17Cl36·9565767 342Mo93·8820479 058Ce141·8774264 078Pt194·9220019 1
42Mo94·8828017 5 78Pt195·9221623 0
18Ar39·9525087 042Mo95·8816391 059Pr140·8752866 5
42Mo96·8829811 5 79Au196·9232309 3
19K40·9514027 3 60Nd141·8748085 0
44Ru97·8811495 060Nd142·8768995 780Hg197·9228826 0
20Ca41·9476464 044Ru98·8818018 560Nd143·8771725 080Hg198·9243935 1
20Ca42·9477950 044Ru99·8800820 060Nd144·8796588 780Hg199·9244396 0
20Ca43·9445102 044Ru100·8814446 560Nd145·8802021 080Hg200·9264159 3
44Ru101·8802118 0 80Hg201·9267566 0
23V50·9313422 744Ru103·8812955 062Sm143·8779870 080Hg203·9296075 0
62Sm148·8831727 7
24Cr51·9273416 045Rh102·905504 162Sm149·8832635 081Tl202·9279092 1
24Cr52·9274835 346Pa101·8803743 062Sm151·8857204 081Tl204·9299925 1
24Cr53·9257145 046Pa103·8788013 0
46Pa104·8798503 563Eu152·8866698 582Pb203·9280600 0
25Mn54·9243306 546Pa105·8782513 0 82Pb205·9294817 0
46Pa107·8786573 064Gd153·8857565 082Pb206·9309133 1
26Fe55·9206744 046Pa109·8799183 064Gd154·8875129 1182Pb207·9316685 0
26Fe56·9211309 1 64Gd155·8870136 0
26Fe57·9190125 047Ag106·8793137 164Gd156·8888510 3
47Ag108·8789687 164Gd157·8889948 0

A4   Champions

  • Technetium and promethium are the only elements, lighter than lead,
    which do not have stable isotopes.
  • A mononucleotide element has only one isotope. The author calls such
    an element rather mono-isotopical. These include the elements
    beryllium, fluorine, sodium, aluminum, phosphorus, scandium, manganese,
    cobalt, arsenic, yttrium, niobium, rhodium, iodine, cesium, praseodymium,
    terbium, holmium, thulium, gold, bismuth, thorium and protactinium.
  • Tin has the most stable isotopes, namely 10.
  • The stable isotope with the largest mass is 82-Lead-208.
  • The largest spin observed at stable nuclei is 11 $.
    That spin occurs at the nucleus of 64Gd155.
  • Hydrogen is the most common element in the universe. The second is helium.
  • Oxygen is the most common element in the earth's crust.

A5   The decay of exotics

The following summary has been derived from the standard theory.
Remember that each particle in the standard theory has its anti particle.
You already know in the oreon hypothesis is no antimatter.

Baryons and hyperons
An omega decays into xi and pion.Xi decays into lambda and pion.
Lambda decays into proton and pion.Sigma decays into proton and pion.
Neutron decays into proton and electron.

D and Eta decay into pions.Kaon decays into pion.
Pion decays into muon.

Tauon decays into muon.Muon decays into electron and (anti) neutrino
This list is far from complete, because two hundred particles have been nominated,
a hundred ordinary and an equal amount of anti particles.
All these particles contain only oreons

Searched: sponsors, donors or grants

In the text about the oreon hypothesis you could read a number of suggestions
about functional experiments to support (or refute) the oreon hypothesis.
If you are sufficiently convinced of the possibilities of this hypothesis,
you may be willing and able to finance the necessary experiments.
In that case, the author, Franklin Roos, asks you to contact him
via his e-mail address: efdeeroos@gmail.com.

Up to the begin of Oreon hypothesis Physics Sciences